Haskore Music Notation -- An Algebra of Music


Paul Hudak, Tom Makucevich, Syam Gadde and Bo Whong


We have developed a simple algebraic approach to music description and composition called Haskore.  In this framework, musical objects consist of primitive notions such as notes and rests, operations to transform musical objects such as transpose and tempo-scaling, and operations to combine musical objects to form more complex ones, such as concurrent and sequential composition.  When these simple notions are embedded into a functional language such as Haskell, rather complex musical relationships can be expressed clearly and succinctly.  Exploiting the algebraic properties of Haskore, we have further defined a notion of literal performance (devoid of articulation) through which observationally equivalent musical objects can be determined.  With this basis many useful properties can be proved, such as commutative, associative, and distributive properties of various operators. An algebra of music thus surfaces.


    ,author={Paul Hudak and Tom Makucevich and 
             Syam Gadde and Bo Whong}
    ,title={Haskore Music Notation -- An Algebra of Music}
    ,journal={Journal of Functional Programming}